Here is that spreadsheet I was talking about. I’m not sure what else I can add but there will always be something eventually. I will probably add a few more links at some point.
I’m finding it hard to believe, but I think I’m finally ready. I have re-done the fine details of this over and over to make sure that it all makes sense and there is not a better way. I have been disappointed in how long it took me to get here because I have been unhappy with how the information was synthesized together and how I would have to describe it on the legend page. So I have been combining and simplifying over and over to make it as generalized and accurate as possible. I think it’s finally done. The process anyway (at least until I have to consider cortex and epigenetics more carefully).
Here is a shot of the spreadsheet for now. I try to upload a copy of it tonight after putting in the rest of the relevant links in. I like the idea of having a file handy for critics.
On the Left side is some general information on the details that I am representing. On the Right side is a box arrangement with some creative cell filling to indicate wires and processing centers. The positioning is relative to how it will be in the model. The pink regions are to indicate different anatomical directions. The blue bar is showing the most general structure. The Yellow boxes are either somatosensory ganglia or neurons. The Orange box represents the receptive field (where the sensation comes from and what it is) for the temperature and pain sense, and the blue boxes represents the touch sense (which is spread between the Vo and Vi sub-ganglia that they call “Pars Interpolaris” and “Pars Caudalis”). The yellow boxes on the right are the destinations of the secondary neurons that reside in the ganglia. The grey box represents the Ganglial Contact Zone (they just call it the Vi/Vo transition zone) that I needed to add as an element. I do not know if there is a GCZ between the Vo and Vi portions of the STN but I will be leaving place holders in the spreadsheet until farther notice.
On the left side of a ganglia/GCZ box I put any inputs to that body and in nearby cells I have receptor/cell type information that I will choose a bead for if necessary (cell type for sure due to message speed being an important factor).
I am also changing the box border colors when appropriate (inhibitory/excitatory signals, etc…). It’s going to get some tweaks because I think I can represent some of that better but at least I have a final piece spreadsheet!
The system that the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus functions within is the somatosensory system (above). I chose to make somatosensory structures (pipe cleaner and plastic) yellow because that is an indicator of an “alert” color that might not be bad choice.
I chose to make pain sense a red bead (wire) or red glitter (processing center). I chose to make Temperature sense an orange bead or orange glitter. I chose to make touch a blue bead or blue glitter.
I want to get the legend up so I will put this in , finish the legend, and then add pictures of the finished STN (2/3 of it anyway, I’m doing Vo next). I just hope that I don’t get really picky about how it looks. I’m going to try to do a good job of course, but the last three weeks have been a bit ridiculous. There are few things that I have been as picky about…
It’s weird. I don’t know if I am doing anything unusual here but I have definitely seen some interesting things happen as I have worked on this. It feels like I’m doing something I could call “analogical thinking” where I’m just blurring things a bit in my head and looking for shared elements when I think about all of this, and how to convey the information. This also happens when I am researching and reading the material. Or maybe prying open an “analogical aperture” might be the right word? I’m still trying to figure this out and a lot of the impressions that I get about what is being written about my head are not things that I can really talk about with enough authority yet. I don’t like to carelessly discuss science.
I have seen my physical tics undergo some changes that have actually forced me to slow down as well. Since I started all this typing I have developed hand and knuckle related tics. Also when I am particularly engrossed in what I am doing sometimes I catch myself doing a particularly elaborate thing that goes from my neck all the way down to one arm. The finger ones are concerning me because I am getting sore knuckles. I am investigating Tai-Chi as a means to gain some more physical awareness so that I can perhaps get better at moving these tics around to less sensitive areas.
At least I hope that is possible. The literature I have read about Tourette syndrome suggests that the tics might be the result of emotional signatures in the cerebral cortex that were left unerased from some sort of generalized rule-making procedure. Coincidental encounters between current cortex activity and the old stuff may result in tics that are essentially partial memories of previous actions, or inappropriately placed memory signatures. The rule based aspects of our language system are historically based off of an evolutionary “copying” of the rule-based parts of the motor system. It’s looking to me like there is a point where the person with Tourettes chooses how to focus the “TO DO” urge. Some choose sports and music with their respective rules to throw the urge at. Maybe others can access a different system that has to do with the rules that determine our symbolic thought processes. Hopefully one of the professionals that I am emailing will be willing to take a look at all this at some point.
So I have essentially been rewriting the “design principles” page in it’s final form, and making all the final choices for the first piece so that I can have it finished and included as an example.
First pieces actually, since the delay included a new design element I am actually making three pieces, two processing regions and the contact zone between them (I changed that “Inter-ganglial regulatory interface” thing, it’s just “ganglial contact zone”). I’m doing the spinal trigminal nucleus caudalis, interpolaris, and the regulatory zone in between. I know it’s not much compared to what I wanted at this point, but here is a quick shot of what I have outlined.
The full design principles page will be the “Map Legend” page. I’m “almost” done and it’s at~8700 words. I had no idea that all that was lurking in my head. I’m glad that I took the time to outline this in full form because ADHD and disorganization. I am a learning process apparently…
I want to apologize to those of you reading that did not realize that this was a lab manual.
One thing I should have said more obviously is that this is a process as well as a model. So what I am finishing for you is a story and a map legend. I’m calling it a “Legend” page because it’s all the background that any random person would need to figure out what they were looking at. It has,
- Why the model is important to me (It shows how information moved through the brain which lets me understand how I think).
- Why I had to make it look like I did (The design elements:Wires, processing regions, and interfaces).
- What the elements mean.
- How to look it up for themselves.
I’m trying to make it like lab meeting of the kind that I would have done in graduate school for fun. I am trying to get it done as fast as I can, but I realized that it would be really important to have and made delaying construction worth while.
Just for fun here is one of the analogies that I am using to offer something.
Yep! I really do think that parts of the brain can be understood in terms of similarities to specific generalities of the computers we use!
Last update line to this post (7/13/12). The summary is that I got started on making the first piece of my model and found something new that I needed to include as a design principle.
As of 6/4/2012 this is an unfinished post! Since it is a creative work in progress on exactly how I turn brain information into a piece of art, I thought there might be preliminary interest before I was finished. It’s also nice having a record of the process for my own benefit 🙂
Most recent update
I’m almost done with the Legend. My next steps are to Finish the Legend, revisit the material briefly, and sketch the piece. I should be deliberate about this too. Even though the parts are easy, I want to do them right.
Note: My intentions are to update a couple of times and then make a final post.
6/5 update: Added the final decision on a trio of ganglia and the logic from source A1
6/7 update: Complication due to ambiguous structure, and doing figures right the first time. Below…
6/8 Finalized the method of diagramming the in-put/out-put logic! I think it’ MUCH cleaner and more understandable.
6/10 The weekend is a time for mentally resetting. This is valuable. I want to explain this someday 🙂 Essentially I need to add a new major element to the design so things got a bit slow while I was thinking. Now I have a solution!6/19
6/12 My apologies on the lack of updates. I have to order a black dye that I can use in the plastic so it might be a few days…
I’ll get some figures into this post. (…and yes I realize that I put beads into my figures twice…)
6/18: The dye will be here today hopefully. That would let me start tomorrow. This stuff has been designed in my head for over two weeks now and I’ve been going a bit nutty wanting to start. But the wait was worthwhile though because a legend page is a great idea. This one is turning out kind of neat because it’s like a lab meeting for you guys like the kind I used to always do during graduate school. A lot more fun than the real ones of course! (Unless the science is fun even when drier like it is for me 😉 )
6/19 I have no dye. Otherwise this will be the best map legend ever, or it will be horrible:) I’m at 3049 words and really enjoying myself.
Now hopefully I can get a routine down to get this thing going in earnest! This will be the day to start good patterns and habits.(This will please you if OCD, maybe…)
Create a routine and just do one for now and as long as necessary. In fact that is what I am doing here. Blogging the experience of my first research attempt on my first model piece so that you can get an idea about the level of detail, and the thinking processes that I was engaging in while I was figuring out what I needed for every piece so that I can say the info is “GOOD”. It’s a model for the following work that I can refer to for anyone who is curious.
For every one of these brain processing centers I need the following information:
- The logical decision that it makes/role that it takes.
- Every known structure that it connects to.
- The logical nature of each of those connections (activation, inhibition, etc…).
- The number of connections (if possible, it might be important).
- The ultimate beginning and nature of the information that it carries/conveys. (For this and #6 it is to keep us in the “big picture both functionally, and experience-wise”)
- The ultimate end and nature of the information that it carries. (See #5 for context)
- Known Epigenetic regulation (for future use)
- What it looks like (might as well have some more context…).
For most readers 1-6 are of decreasing importance. 7 has to do with cutting edge things that are so new I can’t really do more than book mark it so I can build something into the model later when my brain spits out visual solution that is sensible in the information hierarchy. 8 will be useful to people in medicine or brain science. They will be more likely to have a mental link to the shape and it will be more interesting.
Of course I will add more as necessary, but that should be a good place to start. I have a system, I have a plan, what is the first piece!
#1 Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus
From Yahoo. Thank’s yahoo! (Trigeminal = “thrice twinned”. The freaking root is the “nerve”. Nerve is one of the most abused words in science. Its a linguistic whore…
Interesting context though. I almost feel like I’m in the room with Grey…
Looks I have a more challenging piece for my first attempt. I like to Wikipedia first as a broad overview and it says,
The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and temperature from the ipsilateral face. The facial (cranial nerve 7), glossopharyngeal (CN9), and vagus nerves (CN10) also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus.. Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves 5,7,9,10.
This nucleus projects to the ventral posterior medial nucleus in the dorsal thalamus.
That’s pretty bare for Wikipedia so either its pretty simple, or there is not much work with it yet. On top of that the source is gone. Would you trust that? The talk page just leads to a general medical portal, and the revisions just get simpler. This is when I start going to Pubmed, but later because this is a good example of what I keep running into when studying brain info:
Lack of specificity: Due to the long and complicated nature of brain research, this article uses historical Grey’s Anatomy images. This image is only useful when combined with other information because when Grey first did this work he numbered the cranial nerves I-XII, and their root ganglia I-XII. Since then they have discovered that these nuclei are more complicated than they thought because these nerves carry motor, sensory, place-in-space and other information from different places and for different purposes! So the Wikipedia page lists 12 cranial nerves, but 24 cranial nerve nuclei that translate and pass on the information. Annoying! The history has value, but that value is relative to the public’s utility. As long as the ultimate purpose of telling the history is honored in education (or fun), the information needs to be reorganized by everyone in biological sciences.
The Trigeminal Nerve, A TL;DR history.
It’s interesting that my first nuclei is actually mostly not about the body despite being at the bottom of the brain (or at least very low and central to the brain stem structure). That might say things about how human segments are arranged. In fact I think it suggests that the brain stem, should actually be thought of as the “Brain’s Spine”, combined with the information transfer of the “Body’s Spine” So the general information flow in the head looks like this…
…so far. In fact I think that a diagram of the information flow will be a necessary part of this project and I will draw one as I go. Fortunately Wikipedia even helps me here!
- Outline of Human Anatomy: Nervous system part That and grey’s anatomy will let me diagram all the sensory and motor and “other” (My favorite part!) information flow!
- If I have trouble with the nerves I can compare with the known circulatory system routes since the nerve will come off of a segment that also produces a vein/artery pair!
The brain stem is actually an interestingly complicated structure that literally routes information that impacts your entire body. It’s the most important information routing intersection in terms of overall structure at a “horror movie” or “that’s disturbingly interesting” level. So it’s actually a nice contrast that this structure has a complicated history when it comes to learning about it, and it being the first piece I make.
It was named as it looks, and the most obvious feature a centuries old anatomist would notice is that there are three huge nerves splaying from the cut zone. So yeah the old folks do the best with names that they can. The Trigeminal Nerve is interesting to me because the details of the information it handles shows us just how the “Human Worm Segments” of our head are arranged in gross detail.
Using Wikipedia on 6/4/2102, The nerves that feed this structure information mostly have to do with the face on the opposite side of the axis from the ganglion. But that information can be divided into two groups:
- Information about “…deep/crude touch, pain, and temperature from the ipsilateral face.”
- Physical routing of pain information from “The facial (cranial nerve 7), glossopharyngeal (CN9), and vagus nerves (CN10) also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus.. Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves 5,7,9,10.” (We will see this link a lot. I will have to make a Link archive. I have to add proper citations to my routine anyway…)
The output is to the:
Ipsilateral means “same side”, Contralateral means “opposite side”. I think the entire reason that the brain does the side switching thing with information is to create a “Logical Contrast” so that it can tell a difference.
So we have the more “primal” type of pain, touch, and temperature from the face.
In addition we have unspecified pain information traffic for the face (facial nerve, “face/mouth nerve”), the mouth/throat(Glossopharyngeal nerve, “tongue-throat” nerve), and one of the most important nerves in your body, the Vagus nerve. Just pain information.
All that chaos above tells us that the ordered structure that we see in almost every human (there will always be exceptions) has rules, but we don’t understand them. So to properly understand the human body absolutely (if you are into that kind of thing) involves knowing the rules of the growth of the structures. That’s right, embryology.
Oh boy! A new toy! …and some old ones…
I know almost nothing about embryology, but the reason I am willing to play in an unfamiliar field is because I have enough experience with the fundamentals, and would have no problem internalizing a few new basic principles like the diffusion of chemicals in an embryo. (Sorry folks, it’s not a miracle. It’s only complex, which is why all the pain and suffering pops up too often.)
If you can see the results…
…you can get conceptual hold of any topic.
Now I’m only going to include the bits relevant for us, but when development becomes important for functional understanding, I will bring it up. I guess in general I will need a couple of recent reviews on the structure/ganglia/nuclei mass just to make sure I have everything. I always try more than one kind of search so I don’t bias myself so I am trying (I already warned you there are cultural effects in the science and the medicine of the Brain/Mind).
A. [Spinal and trigeminal and nucleus], B. [Trigminal and Nerve]. 272, and 1680. That difference is due to the fact that one plugs into another, time, and because doctors don’t see a STN, they something that their intellectual ancestor called something like a “..special nucleus of gray substance…”, which is to say they don’t see a computer, they see meat.
For A, Sorted by date
- “The role of trigeminal interpolaris-caudalis transition zone in persistent orofacial pain.” is the most recent review that is really “meaty” and detailed. A
- “Neurochemical properties of the synapses in the pathways of orofacial nociceptive reflexes.” is a more “molecular/cellular/tissue angle. Not a review, but they will have background. It’s the kind of thing that I could actually explain if anyone was curious. I used to do something called “In-situ Hybridization” and it was fun! I made yeast cells glow red and blue and genetically modified the creature myself. Life can be legos sometimes. Although I have to assemble it myself with Word and screen grabs…
- “Anatomy of the Rostral Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.” A book chapter. I love these people. Not the same nucleus but also in the brainstem so will give context. More screen grabs…
- This one is Meaty and fun if you have the stomach. A review investigating new scanning technology on a live patient! This is the benefit of broadening your search criteria on anything. Let your tastes guide you.
- “Non-Invasive Mapping of Human Trigeminal Brainstem Pathways” is the brainstem relevant, uh yeah… more Word and screen grabs though…
- If I need one after the fun stuff above…
I think that is a good start so Now I read and diagram out a mini logical structure of the region of the general Trigeminal nerve nuclei, out one heirarchy level from the the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus. I have defined my artistic link to the brain…
After reading “The Role of Trigeminal Interpolaris-Caudalis Transition Zone in Persistent Orofacial Pain” (A1 above) I have come to the conclusion that I must have a nod to actual structure in the model. But how to do this and not have it overwhelm the computation? I may just do it in metal wire that I can paint with a UV reactive substance so you can see the structure “light-up” over the computer bits…
The rear/bottom part of the STN is the Vc (Nerve V, caudal nuclei) This does the pain and crude touch part of this nucleus. It will be Yellow plastic with Black and Red glitter. The logic of the connections that I could strip out of “The role of trigeminal interpolaris-caudalis transition zone in persistent orofacial pain.” is in this image. Looks like I’m building in interesting trio and then attaching the group!
So where is that model piece you promised!
The reason this was done in a pseudo-“live blog” was that I knew complications would arise and that I would need adjust things. I am prone to internalizing bad habits. It take effort for me to get a bad routine out of my head and I love routines! So with something as long term and detailed as this I need to get it right early. So what is at issue?
- That really shitty diagram above
- ambiguous structures.
One is easy but it took me some time yesterday to think it through. I decided to take the Grey’s anatomy images and convert them to figures in Microsoft PowerPoint (you can do SO MUCH with MS office and Photoshop. Did you know you can copy/ paste from one to the other in many cases?).
That still needs some work but is MUCH better than the previous. Still too busy for most readers, but better for now.
Two is a little harder. When I read that first source and discovered this Vi/Vc transition zone, I discovered that it was a very important network hub for a lot of important processes, and it’s still being intensely studied. So while this model is really adaptable to having elements replaced, I need a way to present things like this transition zone. I am working on the second source above (“Neurochemical properties of the synapses in the pathways of orofacial nociceptive reflexes.”) and it includes even MORE extra info about this same transition zone! I hope to have that integrated by the end of the day, after I figure out how to present this hub of a transition zone. It’s more fun than frustrating, but when I say I am going to do something I need to be more specific to your guys…
Final method of showing the in-put/out-put logic! Three separate diagrams for each of inputs, outputs, and “unknown logic”
Next, and hopefully last before modeling something, how do I show these extremely important inter-ganglial transition regions? They are extremely important apparently! Look at all those outputs! I need a way to make them seem obvious when differentiated from the ganglia proper, but still related to the functional class…
6/10 Post one.
I think having a period where you just have fun and relax will one day be a constitutional right if we can define it. Chances are when I am done here we will discover that creativity as a process requires spacing and thinking. The more employers dump on employees, the more mental reset points will probably be necessary. This would probably be to ensure that the physical basis of practice and more importantly, internalization is achieved under the least stress. You can take that as a scientific hypothesis…
To make up for the weekend gap I am now adding a “Legend Page” where the design elements will be explained in specific terms, and the way the elements interact will also be explained so that you can understand how the picture becomes the data that create our experience. In general terms at least. Since science will always be adding to what we know about ourselves, this model is by design extremely easy to alter by nature. It’s an expression of the scientific method.
Here is a preview since it is still in progress. I hope I “code in” permanent elements today at the very least.
I have two good posts almost finished. I have just been unhappy with how the information is presented and keep trying to refine it. I said last time that I was going to do a philosophy post for fun but I’m not braining too good today…
The first one is a final (hopefully) set of principles for choosing colors for the structure of the model so that it will be visually sensible. To give you an idea about why it took a while, here is a preview showing the things I needed to categorize.
“The Wires” (Nerves)
Here is a legend of sorts from my spread sheet that just sorts the features of the nerves by the individual sensation that they detect and other relevant information.
By individual sensation I mean the organ/receptor/structure that gives a single aspect to a “sense” like the “stabbing” pain sensation that is sensed by naked nerve endings, and carried by type Aα nerve cells.
The “Processing Centers” (Ganglia)
Here is another image from that set of sections of the human Brain Stem showing the locations of all sorts of anatomy.
I am planning to start modeling ganglia Wednesday or Thursday so I should finally have some images and information up. I’ll try to give information on what is known about the parts as I build and place them. I figure it’s better to do the processing centers and then install wires after that.
Here are the materials at my disposal again.
Nerves (glitter for ganglia too)
I have far more than this planned for the post defining how they are to be used. I just wanted to get something up here for now.
Me and Philosophy
The post that my sick brain failed me on was an attempt to take Broadmanns areas,
…and after defining the way information flow through the brain, see if we had a model to compare with your favorite philosophy.
The basic idea is that philosophy makes claims about the mind, and it might just be possible that we may see something interesting if you look at how information flows in the brain, and consider if that places limitations on what is possible in human philosophy.
Honestly I’m not sure where I am going with this yet. but my inner monologue says it’s a good idea so I’m listening to her…
In which I take a step back…
First let me say that there are good reasons for the names and terms that need to be changed. When they were first bestowed they did not know what the parts did in the brain. Also keeping a name the same (no matter how silly) can make it easier to do science between folks from different countries. But that usefulness loses it’s relative value once the function of a part of the brain becomes better defined. At some point tradition has to give way to reality and
the name should be changed to something that represents it’s function so that non-scientists can use that information as soon as possible. Especially with something as potentially useful as brain science.
But here is where I can almost understand why there might be a genetic component to conspiracy theories. It might look like I’m seeing hierarchies everywhere, but it’s not crazy if it’s true and I can demonstrate it. A bunch of old sciences are joining together into something new and that new thing has to be useful to people. Brain science needs to do renaming and in a real way the organization of the colors in the model are a process for doing that.
Science and Naming
Science is a constantly evolving discipline because it is a process, and the things that come out of that process can change the outside appearance of the whole enterprise. Part of that is due to the fact that science sometimes gets things wrong and better information is found later. But what is “wrong” is usually the best that they could do at the time. I don’t stick my nose up at alchemy because it was a hypothesis, and chemistry was it’s competitor. Chemistry won, for the most part (I suppose nuclear chemistry is close enough to alchemy in some respects ;)…) As an example the rhetorically abused “paradigm change” that occasionally does occur, such as the eventual acceptance of plate tectonics.
Here is a good story about Alfred Wegener and how he changed Geology.
From Wikipedia’s Continental Drift article.
But another part of that is also because multiple fields of study discover that they are really parts of the same thing and it can take a while to get everything worked into a whole with language that everyone uses. This happened with DNA. At first they knew nucleic acid existed, and that there was something in the cell that stored the genetic information. Eventually the right experiment was done and the two fields, DNA and genetics, were merged.
Here is Wikipedia’s description of the Hershey-Chase experiment which is the one they show us in Molecular Biology to tell the history of how they knew that DNA was where our genes were.
Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey. From The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory DNA Learning Center.
Brain science is a lot like the second one except that these fields knew that they were related from the start. It’s just that the brain had so many dimensions to how it functioned that it’s study started in many different places at different times.
- Molecular biology: The study of the nature and structure of the chemical networks inside of cells, focusing on the molecules that do the chemistry. Biochemistry (think chemistry specific to biology) is a big part of this field.
- Cell biology: The study of the behavior of cells and the interactions between cells.
- Neurobiology: The study of the cells of the nervous system and their interactions. This roughly blends into,
- Anatomy of the brain, psychology, sociology, more!
The reason all the names and interactions suck to learn is that when these things were first being investigated, the scientists often times did not know what they were dealing with so they had to have something, anything to create differences that they could use to sort and study parts.
It started with anatomy.
Here is a free online version of Grey’s Anatomy (the book, not the comedy). Back then they had very little idea what this stuff was all about. There were some items known in general terms from specific brain injuries, but the structures were mostly all named according to what they looked like, in Latin, or French, or…
Cerebellum (little brain), medulla oblongata (middle body), median fissure (middle division). It can be a little intimidating.
Then there was Cell Biology and Neurobiology.
Cells had the same problem with naming. You have lots of names having to do with names, shapes, and now electrical properties as well. This was not just for the nerve cells either, your brain has more non-nerve cells in it than nerve cells believe it or not. The general name for those cells is Neuroglia, nerve glue! I’m sure at the time it was fine, but for everyone else? Here is a small selection;
On top of that now the cells are also being divided by electrical activity. This overview of the somatosensory system (touch/pain sensing system) shows cells being named by the speed of the impulse, the voltage peak (literally detected by micro voltmeter)…
Now admittedly this last bit is far more useful because these features do give me information that can be used in organization and study. But I maintain that it is useless to regular folks who have a relative with a problem, or their own problem and a life to deal with.
Then there was modern brain science, and more crazy naming.
Here is where my issues with naming and science start to become unfair, which is why it’s a process and not a rule. If the role of a part of the brain is unambiguously known, or known well enough that it’s primary function is known, that is when the name should be changed. But when you are sitting on the cutting edge things are still too fuzzy for that. Here are some examples of things that can’t really be renamed that I will have to take into account somehow;
- Structures/cells/molecules with still unknown functions and/or relationships.
- Whole fields that are not yet known well enough to integrate into brain science.
They name these things whatever they have to to understand them. I will have to have a way of making “function unknown” visually obvious in a way that does not detract from visually appreciating what is known. I will probably have a color, or obvious texture, or similar reserved for that purpose. I’m hoping to make some basic decisions this week.
How carefully do I need to do this? Here is an image from one of my sources that I found freely available on the web. This is a section of your brain stem (there are 25 pages of these).
From “Organization of Human Brain Stem Nuclei” by Yuri Koutcherov, Xu-Feng Huang, Glenda Halliday, and George Paxinos of The Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute The University of New South Wales. Brain nuclei are literally small brains that have jobs in processing information for your body. The are information nodes in a net work, and they are sensible and understandable!
This is the most fascinating part of the brain to me because what I am most interested in are the very oldest things in our ancestors. If I had managed to get my PhD I wanted to study Origin of Life issues. This is close too!
The brain stem is the most ancient structure evolutionarily speaking. There is a rough progression from oldest to youngest as you move from the bottom of the brain stem through to the forehead. What that means is that if you find that you share something with a creature that is REALLY distantly related to you and it’s in the brain stem, you probably have something really mentally universal and fundamentally important. This is where the model starts.
The brain stem is the origin of ME, and YOU in that big grand ultimate sense that we mean when we want eternal life, the propagation of the self and our memories and experiences into continued existance. This is where Brains began because this is where an ancestor that was a worm-like thing first made* something “different” at the front in terms of how information flowed in it’s body. This is like a worms brain. This is;
- Vomiting, Sneezing, Coughing (Generalized “Get the toxin out!”)
- Heart Beating
- Sleeping (It’s that old…)
Go back much farther and you lose things that are bilateral. Yes, not long after a tube shaped body appeared evolution took advantage of cells that communicate in a way that made the “self” possible.
To start organizing it I printed out all these pages and started coloring things with colored pencils by category of function as best as I could. No particular color but I toyed with making certain some colors certain categories.
Just look at that organization! Sometimes I sympathize with Creationists. If you don’t know how to understand Embryology it can look deliberate. But in the end it’s still just the Arrogance of Ignorance…
I just want to start making hypotheses about why it’s organized the way that it is and what that says about our ancestors!
The book chapter lists these categories. In the parentheses afterward I will try to convey what they mean to you in a personal sense. The colors are matched to the colored pencil colors as closely as I could manage and the regions with black shading are the white matter (wires) and areas unshaded with black are the nuclei/ganglia (information processing centers). This is all human specific information and I will not include animal information until I get to the model.
- Autonomic Regulatory Centers
- Reticular Formation
- The Brainstem’s brainstem. Very old parts. (Maintaining tone, balance, and posture–especially during body movements. Sends eye and ear signals to the cerebellum so that the cerebellum can integrate visual, auditory, and vestibular (balance) stimuli in motor coordination. Gaze centers, which enable the eyes to track and fixate objects, and central pattern generators, (programmed muscle movements) which produce rhythmic signals to the muscles of breathing and swallowing. Cardiovascular control. Pain modulation. Sleep and alertness (all or nothing conspicuousness?). Habituation – This is a process in which the brain learns to ignore repetitive, meaningless stimuli while remaining sensitive to others.
- Tegmental Nuclei
- Cognition, motivation, drug addiction, intense emotions relating to love. May be involved in modulating sustained attention or in mediating alerting responses, and also in the generation of REM sleep. Head direction. Arousal, attention, learning, reward, and voluntary limb movements and locomotion.
- Locus coeruleus involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
- Raphe Nuclei
- Ventral Mesencephalic Tegmentum
- Animal studies only. Human lesion patient showed “Persistent executive deficit”.
- Substantia Nigra
- Cranial Motor Nuclei
- They drive your jaws, eyes, tongue and neck…
- Somatosensory System
- Pain, Touch, “Sense of location in space of body”, Temperature, chemical senses (including taste and smell).
- Vestibular Nuclei
- Auditory System
- Visual System
- Sight, also a circadian rhythm component.
- Precerebellar Nuclei: A catch-all category for processing centers that data travel to just prior to traveling to the Cerebellum, a very old and important structure that basically reinforces the correct way to do everything at an unconscious level.
- Inferior Olivary Nucleus: control and coordination of movements.
- Paramedian reticular nucleus: No direct human information but likely increases precision in body and eye movements
I think you get the point. See how the language sucks. But there is so much information there that could be more helpful if it was better presented for the public.
They know TONS about how these bits connect together, what the bits do, and lots of the logic (computational rules like “On”, “Off”, more…) between them. If you are a philosopher and you are not reading neurobiology at whatever level you can, you are being professionally negligent. But it’s only partially your fault, hence this effort.
These networks and how they differ on an individual basis is what I hear used as the term neurodiversity in public. Ignore it at your peril. We are a spectrum, not black and white. Mental illness is the definition of the extreme. I know that some of the science readers here might get a bit uncomfortable with the term because there are a lot of bad ideas associated with some folks who use the term. But it is accurate and that is what I care about.
Stuff that is new in a BIG way
There are two that I can think of: RNA interference and epigenetics (I’m preparing a cool post about that, eventually). RNA interference is basically when RNA plays a role in shutting off gene expression instead of being a messenger molecule. Epigeneitcs is something that I will have to do a post on all by itself at some point. This is when a trait gets inherited for a limited number of generations, or gets inherited with no actual change in the DNA. What gets inherited are little “marks” on the DNA that change the expression. While I have not yet explored RNA interference and the brain yet, epigenetics is VERY involved in brain function. In fact I’m of the opinion that this will be next decade’s controversial research subject due to it’s implications.
So there is a bit more on the level of detail that I want to take this model. Right now I am entering nuclei into a spread sheet and adding relevant details about connections, role (human and animal studies), neurotransmitters, everything.